Prognosis Research in Healthcare: Concepts, Methods and Impact provides a comprehensive overview of the field of prognosis and prognosis research and gives a global perspective on how prognosis research and prognostic information can improve the outcomes of healthcare. It details how to design, carry out, analyse and report prognosis studies, and how prognostic information can be the basis for tailored, personalised healthcare. In particular, the book discusses how information about the characteristics of people, their health, and environment can be used to predict an individual's future health.
Prognosis Research in Healthcare: Concepts, Methods and Impact, addresses all types of prognosis research and provides a practical step-by-step guide to undertaking and interpreting prognosis research studies, ideal for medical students, health researchers, healthcare professionals and methodologists, as well as for guideline and policy makers in healthcare wishing to learn more about the field of prognosis.
The second edition of this volume provides insight and practical illustrations on how modern statistical concepts and regression methods can be applied in medical prediction problems, including diagnostic and prognostic outcomes. Many advances have been made in statistical approaches towards outcome prediction, but a sensible strategy is needed for model development, validation, and updating, such that prediction models can better support medical practice.
There is an increasing need for personalized evidence-based medicine that uses an individualized approach to medical decision-making. In this Big Data era, there is expanded access to large volumes of routinely collected data and an increased number of applications for prediction models, such as targeted early detection of disease and individualized approaches to diagnostic testing and treatment. Clinical Prediction Models presents a practical checklist that needs to be considered for development of a valid prediction model. Steps include preliminary considerations such as dealing with missing values; coding of predictors; selection of main effects and interactions for a multivariable model; estimation of model parameters with shrinkage methods and incorporation of external data; evaluation of performance and usefulness; internal validation; and presentation formatting. The text also addresses common issues that make prediction models suboptimal, such as small sample sizes, exaggerated claims, and poor generalizability.
This highly anticipated second edition features new chapters and sections, 225 new references, and comprehensive R software. In keeping with the previous edition, this book is about the art and science of data analysis and predictive modeling, which entails choosing and using multiple tools. Instead of presenting isolated techniques, this text emphasizes problem solving strategies that address the many issues arising when developing multivariable models using real data and not standard textbook examples. It includes imputation methods for dealing with missing data effectively, methods for fitting nonlinear relationships and for making the estimation of transformations a formal part of the modeling process, methods for dealing with "too many variables to analyze and not enough observations," and powerful model validation techniques based on the bootstrap. The reader will gain a keen understanding of predictive accuracy, and the harm of categorizing continuous predictors or outcomes. This text realistically deals with model uncertainty, and its effects on inference, to achieve "safe data mining." It also presents many graphical methods for communicating complex regression models to non-statisticians.