Prognosis research in healthcare: concepts, methods and impact
International Summer School, Keele University (2021 course now completed - thanks to all the participants! We will run again in 2022)
This 3-day summer school is designed to introduce the key components and uses of prognosis research to health professionals and researchers, including:
a framework of four different prognosis research questions: overall prognosis, prognostic factors, prognostic models, and stratified medicine
key principles of study design and methods
interpretation of statistical results about prognosis
the use of prognosis research evidence at multiple stages on the translational pathway toward improving patient outcome
the limitations of current prognosis research, and how the field can be improved
The course consists of lectures from a core faculty of epidemiologists, statisticians and clinical researchers, alongside group work and discussion sessions. Please note that no computer practicals are included with the focus instead on interpretation of statistical concepts and results of analyses. Basic knowledge of epidemiology and statistics is assumed. The course is founded on the prognosis research framework introduced by the PROGRESS partnership, described in a series of 4 articles published in BMJ/PLoS Medicine in February 2013.
We will run again in 2022.
Statistical methods for risk prediction and prognostic models
2021, Keele University
(we will run again in Autumn 2021 - please email to be added to the waiting list - there is large demand so we are doing our best to run the course twice in the autumn)
This course provides a thorough foundation of statistical methods for developing and validating prognostic models in clinical research. The course is delivered over 3 days and focuses on model development (day 1), internal validation (day 2), and external validation and novel topics (day 3). Our focus is on multivariable models for individualised prediction of future outcomes (prognosis), although many of the concepts described also apply to models for predicting existing disease (diagnosis).
Computer practicals in either R or Stata are included on all three days, and participants can choose whether to focus on logistic regression examples (for binary outcomes) or Cox / flexible parametric survival examples (for time-to-event outcomes), to tailor the practicals to their own purpose.
The course is aimed at individuals that want to learn how to develop and validate risk prediction and prognostic models, specifically for binary or time-to-event clinical outcomes. We recommend participants have a background in statistics. An understanding of key statistical principles and measures (such as effect estimates, confidence intervals and p-values) and the ability to apply and interpret regression models is essential.
For more info, click here.
Statistical methods for meta-analysis of individual participant data,
2021 Keele University
(This is now fully booked - we will run again in December - please email to be added to waiting list)
This three-day online course provides a detailed foundation of the methods and principles for meta-analysis when Individual Participant Data (IPD) are available from multiple related studies. The course considers continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, and covers a variety of modelling options, including fixed effect and random effects.
Days 1 and 2 mainly focus on the synthesis of IPD from randomised trials of interventions, where the aim is to summarise a treatment effect or to examine treatment-covariate interactions. We outline how to use either a two-stage framework (day 1) or a one-stage framework (day 2) for the meta-analysis, and compare their pros and cons. Day 3 focuses on novel extensions including multivariate and network meta-analysis of IPD to incorporate correlated and indirect evidence (e.g. from multiple outcomes or multiple treatment comparisons). Special topics will also be covered, including: (i) IPD meta-analysis to identify prognostic/risk factors, (ii) IPD meta-analysis of test accuracy studies; (iii) estimating the power of a planned IPD meta-analysis; and (iv) dealing with unavailable IPD. The course consists of a mixture of pre-recorded lectures, followed by practical sessions and live Q&A sessions to reinforce the underlying statistical concepts. Participants can choose either Stata or R for the practicals. The key messages are illustrated with real examples throughout the course
The course is aimed at individuals that want to learn how to plan and undertake an IPD meta-analysis. We recommend that participants have a background in statistics as the course assumes a good understanding of core statistical principles and topics, such as regression methods (such as linear, logistic, and Cox), parameter estimation and interpreting software output. A familiarity with traditional aggregate data (non-IPD) meta-analysis methods is advantageous, though not essential. We also recommend that participants are familiar with Stata or R, although the practicals will not require individuals to write their own code. Participants must have access to their own copy of R or Stata for undertaking the practicals.
The course will be run online over three days using a combination of recorded lecture videos, computer practical exercises in Stata and R for participants to work through, and daily live question and answer sessions.
All course material (lecture videos and computer practicals) will be made available from Monday 3rd May to provide plenty of time and flexibility for participants to work through the material. Two Q&A sessions will be scheduled for each of the three course days at 9:00-10:00 GMT and 16:00-17:00 GMT to allow discussion between faculty and participants. We hope that delegates in different time zones will be able to join us for at least one of these live sessions a day. Questions can be submitted in advance at any time or asked during the live sessions. Faculty will also be available to answer outstanding questions at other times as needed.
For more details and booking information, please click here. For participants wanting to participate between 9:00 and 17:00 GMT, a proposed timetable is here. Lecture videos will remain available for two weeks after the course finishes.
The following prices are available:
Student - £399
Academic - £499
Industry - £599
Systematic Reviews of Prognosis Studies (various online & face-to-face), Utrecht
This medical course for researchers discusses how to define your review questions, how to search the literature, how to critically assess the methodological quality of primary prognosis studies, and which statistical methods to use for their synthesis.
The course consists of plenary presentations, small-group discussions, and computer exercises.
At the end of the course, you'll should be able to:
Explain the rationale for performing a systematic review of prognostic studies
List the key steps of a systematic review of prognostic studies
Formulate a focused review question addressing a prognostic problem
Systematically search the literature
Critically appraise the evidence from primary prognostic studies
Formulate the difficulties of meta-analysis of prognostic research
Meta-analyses of performance of prognostic models
Meta-analyses of the added value of specific prognostic factors
For more info, click here
Clinical prediction models (3-day course, Maastricht )
In the Clinical Prediction Models course, an attempt is made to teach the student a critical attitude towards prediction models for clinical practice. For this it is necessary to go through all development steps. The process starts with formulating one or more potential applications of a model to be developed. The next step is to gather the required data, by own data collection or by using an existing dataset. Important questions are: which predictors do I want to include in the model? How big should my population be? What do I do with missing values? Then follows the development and internal validation of the model. Questions that arise are: which analytical method can I best apply? What is Bootstrapping? What is shrinkage? What is the difference between discrimination and calibration? To test a prediction model once developed in a new patient group (external validation), a good dataset is also needed. Questions that will play a role in external validation are: how do I express performance now? What can I do if the performance is disappointing? Once a prediction model has overcome the previous hurdles, it remains to be seen whether the model can actually contribute to a better prognosis for the patient, more efficient care, or other intended outcomes. There are also various design options available for this.
For more info, click here